The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) has once again denied a permit for a pipeline slated to deliver much-needed natural gas to markets in the state. The Millennium Pipeline this week joined the Constitution and the Northern Access as the third major pipeline that has been denied permitting in recent years. The reality for New York is that it has a state energy plan that calls for the use of more natural gas, but at each turn continues to make it impossible to actually meet the demands of residents and businesses with its ban on fracking and denial of infrastructure permits. And with the recent announcement that the state will also close the Indian Point nuclear power plant, the state’s energy outlook could become even more dire.
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Let p(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + … + anxn and suppose at least one of the coefficients ai is irrational for some i ≥ 1. Then a theorem by Weyl says that the fractional parts of p(n) are equidistributed as n varies over the integers. That is, the proportion of values that land in some interval is equal to the length of that interval. Clearly it’s necessary that one of the coefficients be irrational. What may be surprising is that it is sufficient. If the coefficients are all rational with common denominator N, then the sequence would only contain multiples of 1/N. The interval [1/3N, 2/3N], for example, would never get a sample. If a0 were irrational but the rest of the coefficients were rational, we’d have the same situation, simply shifted by a0. This is a theorem about what happens in the limit, but we can look at what happens for some large but finite set of terms. And we can use a χ2 test to see how evenly our sequence is compared to what one would expect from a random sequence.
La Malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria que involucra fiebres altas, escalofríos, síntomas seudogripales y anemia. Causas La malaria o paludismo es causada por un parásito que se transmite a los humanos a través de la picadura de mosquitos anofeles infectados. Después de la infección, los parásitos (llamados esporozoítos) viajan a través del torrente sanguíneo hasta el hígado, donde maduran y producen otra forma, llamada merozoítos. Los parásitos ingresan en el torrente sanguíneo e infectan a los glóbulos rojos. Los parásitos se multiplican dentro de los glóbulos rojos, los cuales se rompen al cabo de 48 a 72 horas, infectando más glóbulos rojos. Los primeros síntomas se presentan por lo general de 10 días a 4 semanas después de la infección, aunque pueden aparecer incluso a los 8 días o hasta 1 año después de esta. Los síntomas ocurren en ciclos de 48 a 72 horas. La mayoría de los síntomas son causados por: La liberación de merozoítos en el torrente sanguíneo Anemia resultante de la destrucción de glóbulos rojos Grandes cantidades de hemoglobina libre liberada en la circulación luego de la ruptura de los glóbulos rojos
The United States is moving away from the necessity to import large volumes of natural gas for its domestic requirements. Over the last few years it has become possible to produce vast amounts of shale gas that was previously uneconomic to extract. Between 2007 and 2012, shale gas production in the U.S. rose from 1.3 trillion cubic feet to around 8.5 trillion cubic feet, and it now accounts for almost 35 percent of total U.S. gas production, a figure that is expected to rise to nearly 50 percent by 2030. (1) This contrasts with the situation that existed just a decade ago when natural gas production in the United States was in decline: at that time the Energy Information Administration (EIA) projected that in order to keep up with rising demand the country would need to import 26 percent of its total natural gas consumption in 2020. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, otherwise known as “fracking,” has allowed drillers to release natural gas from shale reserves that had previously been uneconomic to exploit. According to the March 2013 analysis by The American Security Project, “The Geopolitical Implications of U.S. Natural Gas Exports” (2), the enormous production has resulted in a glut of supply and rock-bottom prices, and producers hope to relieve the glut of natural gas in the U.S. by exporting surplus production, taking advantage of higher prices around the world. However, the report points out the fact that under the Natural Gas Act, first passed in 1938 and amended several times since, the export of natural gas is illegal without approval from the Secretary of Energy.
OCT-2016. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) the oil glut in global oil markets will last for longer than previously thought, persisting into late 2017 as demand growth slumps and supply proves resilient. “Demand growth is slowing and supply is rising,” adds the IEA, “Consequently, stocks of oil in OECD countries (members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) are swelling to levels never seen before.” The combination of faltering demand and increased OPEC output pushed oil inventories in developed nations to a record in July, at 3.1 billion barrels. Harry Tchilinguirian, head of commodity markets at BNP Paribas in London, considers that “OPEC’s long game got a little longer, implying the need for oil prices to remain lower for longer to spur the necessary adjustments in supply”. Also with regard to OPEC Olivier Jacob, managing director of the consulting company Petromatrix GmbH in Zug, Switzerland, says that the organization is “trapped” since “Non- OPEC supply has been able to adjust better than expected to the lower oil prices.”
Shale’s potential can be appreciated by a brief examination of the world shale oil and gas map, produced by the U.S. Energy Information Administration and Advanced Resources International in May 2013, from which it can be seen that shale oil and gas formations occur on all continents. Also, the EIA and ARI study “Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries outside the United States” of June 2013, ranks countries in terms of technically recoverable shale oil and shale gas resources. Here, Russia, the U.S.A., and China are ranked by the EIA in the first three places of technically recoverable shale oil resources, with 75 billion barrels, 58 billion barrels (or 48 billion barrels according to ARI estimates), and 32 billion barrels respectively. With regard to technically recoverable shale gas resources, the EIA ranks China, Argentina and Algeria in the first three places with 1,115 trillion cubic feet, 802 trillion cubic feet, and 707 trillion cubic feet respectively. ARI differs in its estimates placing the United States at number one, just ahead of China, with 1,161 trillion cubic feet.[spacer height=”15px”] Clearly, however, as the EIA indicates, there is a difference between what is technically recoverable and what is economically recoverable: costs, technology and market factors make, or don’t make, a resource economically recoverable; and any negative effects of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, on the environmental would also have to be brought into the equation
Algeria Algeria’s hydrocarbons basins hold two significant shale gas and shale oil formations: the Silurian Tannezuft Shale and the Devonian Frasnian Shale. The Energy Information Administration, Advanced Resources International, Inc (EIA-ARI) report World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment, June 2013, which analyses the Ghadames (Berkine) and Illizi Basins in eastern Algeria, the Timimoun, Ahnet and Mouydir Basins in centre of the country, and the Reggane and Tindouf Basins in the southwest, estimates that there are 3,419 trillion cubic feet of risked* shale gas in place with 707 trillion cubic feet as the risked, technically recoverable** shale gas resource. Six of these basins contain 121 billion barrels of risked shale oil and condensates in-place, with 5.7 billion barrels as the risked technically recoverable shale oil resource. Notes: *An adjustment to the total hydrocarbon in-place taking into account the current knowledge about the play, the quality of the data, and the current state of technology. **Calculated by applying a recovery factor to risked gas in-place. Varies between 15%-35% with most plays in the 20%-30% range. the country’s national petroleum company, Sonatrach (Société nationale de transport et de la commercialisation des hydrocarbures) has undertaken a comprehensive effort to define the size of its shale gas and shale oil reserves. Pilot wells are scheduled first for the Berkine (Ghadames) Basin, followed by test wells in Illizi, Timimoun, Ahmet and Mouydir basins. The international energy companies Statoil and Repsol have also undertaken geological and reservoir characterization studies of Algeria’s shales. Over the last year the country modified its hydrocarbons legislation to improve the investment climate in anticipation of a hydrocarbons licensing round in 2013. Sonatrach is expected to remain dominant in the sector, according to the report. Libya The EIA-ARI report considers three of the four major hydrocarbons basins in Libya: the Ghadames (Berkine) basin in the west of Libya, the Sirte basin in the centre, and the Murzuq basin in the southwest. The Kufra Basin in the southeast is not assessed quantitatively by the report. The first three of the basins mentioned contain 942 trillion cubic feet of risked shale gas in-place with 122 trillion cubic feet as the risked, technically recoverable shale gas resource. They also contain 613 billion barrels of risked shale oil and condensates in-place with 26.1 billion barrels as the risked, technically recoverable shale oil resource. Furthermore, according to ARI “(…) it is likely that future exploration will identify additional shale resources in other basins and formations.” In late 2012, the Chairman of Libya’s national oil company, National Oil Company (NOC), Nuri Berruien, announced that the company was examining options for the exploration of unconventional oil and gas resources, one option being to make an internal evaluation and then bring in international companies with expertise in unconventional exploration and development. Egypt Egypt has four basins in the Western Desert with shale oil and gas potential: Abu Gharadig, Alamein, Natrun, and Shoushan-Matruh. The largest horizon is the Khatatba Shale in the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation. ARI estimates that this Khatatba Shale contains around 535 trillion cubic feet of risked shale gas in-place with 100 trillion cubic feet of risked, technically recoverable shale gas resources. In terms of shale oil, ARI assesses that here there are about 114 billion barrels of risked shale oil in-place, with 4.6 billion barrels of risked, technically recoverable shale oil resources. South Africa