T: Education ID: 695 I: 1677 P: 17.11 C: 0.0012 #### Highly Effective Students Never procrasitinate their planned study session.

T: Education ID: 696 I: 1678 P: 17.12 C: 0.0012 #### Highly Effective Students Start with the most difficult subject first.

T: Education ID: 713 I: 1697 P: 18.65 C: 0.0012 #### Autism breakthrough: One protein's sweeping influence on development of autism revealed

#### As many as a third of autism cases could be explained by a scarcity of a single protein in the brain, Toronto scientists have revealed. The findings provide a unique opportunity to develop treatments for a disorder that is rooted in a motley crew of genetic faults.

Researchers induced autistic-like behaviour in mice by lowering the levels of a protein called nSR100 (also known as SRRM4), which is important for normal brain development. The study, published in the December 15 issue of the journal Molecular Cell, builds on the teams' previous work which showed that the nSR100 protein was reduced in the brains of autistic people.

The teams were led by Professors Benjamin Blencowe of the University of Toronto's Donnelly Centre and Sabine Cordes of the Department of Molecular Genetics and Sinai Health System's Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute.

Researchers induced autistic-like behaviour in mice by lowering the levels of a protein called nSR100 (also known as SRRM4), which is important for normal brain development. The study, published in the December 15 issue of the journal Molecular Cell, builds on the teams' previous work which showed that the nSR100 protein was reduced in the brains of autistic people.

The teams were led by Professors Benjamin Blencowe of the University of Toronto's Donnelly Centre and Sabine Cordes of the Department of Molecular Genetics and Sinai Health System's Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute.

T: Education ID: 714 I: 1686 P: 18.94 C: 0.0012 #### Newton and the Equations of Nature by @techreview

#### Published on Dec 22, 2016 by @techreview

We all know Isaac Newton for something that he never did: discovering gravity when an apple fell on his head and woke him up from a nap under a tree. This is what actually happened.

We all know Isaac Newton for something that he never did: discovering gravity when an apple fell on his head and woke him up from a nap under a tree. This is what actually happened.

T: Education ID: 687 I: 1894 P: 19.13 C: 0.0011 #### Deep probe of antimatter puts Einstein’s special relativity to the test. By @NewsfromScience

#### After decades of effort, physicists have probed the inner working of atoms of antihydrogen—the antimatter version of hydrogen—by measuring for the first time a particular wavelength of light that they absorb. The advance opens the way to precisely comparing hydrogen and antihydrogen and, oddly, testing the special theory of relativity—Albert Einstein’s 111-year-old theory of how space and time appear to observers moving relative to one another, which, among other things, says that nothing can move faster than light.

"It's a stunning result," says Alan Kostelecky, a theorist at Indiana University in Bloomington who was not involved in the work. For decades, experimenters have dreamed of measuring the spectrum of light absorbed by antihydrogen, Kostelecky says. "Here it is. They're doing it now."

Just as an atom of hydrogen consists of an electron bound to a proton, antihydrogen is an antielectron (or positron) bound to an antiproton. Of course, antihydrogen doesn't occur in nature. Because matter and antimatter particles annihilate each other, antihydrogen would vanish as soon as it touched matter. So physicists must make the stuff in the lab. Still, they expect the properties of antihydrogen to exactly mirror those of hydrogen.

"It's a stunning result," says Alan Kostelecky, a theorist at Indiana University in Bloomington who was not involved in the work. For decades, experimenters have dreamed of measuring the spectrum of light absorbed by antihydrogen, Kostelecky says. "Here it is. They're doing it now."

Just as an atom of hydrogen consists of an electron bound to a proton, antihydrogen is an antielectron (or positron) bound to an antiproton. Of course, antihydrogen doesn't occur in nature. Because matter and antimatter particles annihilate each other, antihydrogen would vanish as soon as it touched matter. So physicists must make the stuff in the lab. Still, they expect the properties of antihydrogen to exactly mirror those of hydrogen.

T: Education ID: 597 I: 2269 P: 19.23 C: 0.0009 #### His teachers called him lazy.

####

## Léon Foucault

Léon Foucault was born in Paris, France, on September 18, 1819. He made his first major scientific discovery in the 1850s, when he exhibited experimental proof of the earth's rotation using Foucault's Pendulum. In 1852, he further demonstrated the earth's rotation with a gyroscope. In 1862, he became the first to accurately identify the speed of light. He died on February 11, 1868, in Paris, France.

Discoveries and Inventions

While working under Donné, Foucault discovered a means of taking photos through the lens of a microscope. In the process, he invented a strong source of light for illuminating his microscopic subjects. In 1845, Foucault took over Donné's position as editor of the scientific newspaper Journal des Débats.

Foucault made his first major scientific discovery in the early 1850s, when he exhibited experimental proof of the earth's rotation through the use of a pendulum, aptly dubbed Foucault's Pendulum. In 1852, he extrapolated on this principal by demonstrating the earth's rotation with a gyroscope. Three years later, Foucault earned the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his efforts in proving Earth's diurnal rotation.

In 1855, Foucault was appointed physicist by the Imperial Observatory, where he experimented with improvements to telescope technology (including the use of silvered concave mirrors) and land-surveying equipment.

In 1862, Foucault became the first to accurately identify the speed of light. He did so by using a rotating mirror in an enclosed space. Afterward, his experiments became increasingly focused on precision engineering.

Léon Foucault was born in Paris, France, on September 18, 1819. He made his first major scientific discovery in the 1850s, when he exhibited experimental proof of the earth's rotation using Foucault's Pendulum. In 1852, he further demonstrated the earth's rotation with a gyroscope. In 1862, he became the first to accurately identify the speed of light. He died on February 11, 1868, in Paris, France.

Discoveries and Inventions

While working under Donné, Foucault discovered a means of taking photos through the lens of a microscope. In the process, he invented a strong source of light for illuminating his microscopic subjects. In 1845, Foucault took over Donné's position as editor of the scientific newspaper Journal des Débats.

Foucault made his first major scientific discovery in the early 1850s, when he exhibited experimental proof of the earth's rotation through the use of a pendulum, aptly dubbed Foucault's Pendulum. In 1852, he extrapolated on this principal by demonstrating the earth's rotation with a gyroscope. Three years later, Foucault earned the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his efforts in proving Earth's diurnal rotation.

In 1855, Foucault was appointed physicist by the Imperial Observatory, where he experimented with improvements to telescope technology (including the use of silvered concave mirrors) and land-surveying equipment.

In 1862, Foucault became the first to accurately identify the speed of light. He did so by using a rotating mirror in an enclosed space. Afterward, his experiments became increasingly focused on precision engineering.

T: Education ID: 679 I: 1972 P: 19.52 C: 0.0010 #### Her work with differential equations contributed to advances in the study of fluid dynamics

####

## Dr. Olga Ladyzhenskaya

Mathematician whose work with differential equations contributed to advances in the study of fluid dynamics in areas like weather forecasting, oceanography, aerodynamics and cardiovascular science, died on Jan. 12 in St. Petersburg, Russia. She was 81.

The cause of death had not been determined, according to a spokeswoman for the Association for Women in Mathematics, in College Park, Md. Dr. Ladyzhenskaya was a member of the organization.

Her primary work was on calculations that were developed in the 19th century to explain the behavior of fluids and known as Navier-Stokes equations. As a researcher first at St. Petersburg University and later at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics, also in St. Petersburg, she worked through the solutions for the equations, which show how a number of variables relate in time and space.

Among other practical uses, the equations enable meteorologists to predict the movement of storm clouds.

The cause of death had not been determined, according to a spokeswoman for the Association for Women in Mathematics, in College Park, Md. Dr. Ladyzhenskaya was a member of the organization.

Her primary work was on calculations that were developed in the 19th century to explain the behavior of fluids and known as Navier-Stokes equations. As a researcher first at St. Petersburg University and later at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics, also in St. Petersburg, she worked through the solutions for the equations, which show how a number of variables relate in time and space.

Among other practical uses, the equations enable meteorologists to predict the movement of storm clouds.

T: Education ID: 584 I: 2347 P: 19.72 C: 0.0009 #### The machine could write a symbol on the tape, or delete a symbol from the tape

####

## Alan Mathison Turing

He graduated in 1934 then, in the spring of 1935, he attended Max Newman's advanced course on the foundations of mathematics. This course studied Gödel's incompleteness results and Hilbert's question on decidability. In one sense 'decidability' was a simple question, namely given a mathematical proposition could one find an algorithm which would decide if the proposition was true of false. For many propositions it was easy to find such an algorithm. The real difficulty arose in proving that for certain propositions no such algorithm existed. When given an algorithm to solve a problem it was clear that it was indeed an algorithm, yet there was no definition of an algorithm which was rigorous enough to allow one to prove that none existed. Turing began to work on these ideas.

Turing was elected a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, in 1935 for a dissertation On the Gaussian error function which proved fundamental results on probability theory, namely the central limit theorem. Although the central limit theorem had recently been discovered, Turing was not aware of this and discovered it independently. In 1936 Turing was a Smith's Prizeman.

Turing's achievements at Cambridge had been on account of his work in probability theory. However, he had been working on the decidability questions since attending Newman's course. In 1936 he published On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. It is in this paper that Turing introduced an abstract machine, now called a "Turing machine", which moved from one state to another using a precise finite set of rules (given by a finite table) and depending on a single symbol it read from a tape.

He graduated in 1934 then, in the spring of 1935, he attended Max Newman's advanced course on the foundations of mathematics. This course studied Gödel's incompleteness results and Hilbert's question on decidability. In one sense 'decidability' was a simple question, namely given a mathematical proposition could one find an algorithm which would decide if the proposition was true of false. For many propositions it was easy to find such an algorithm. The real difficulty arose in proving that for certain propositions no such algorithm existed. When given an algorithm to solve a problem it was clear that it was indeed an algorithm, yet there was no definition of an algorithm which was rigorous enough to allow one to prove that none existed. Turing began to work on these ideas.

Turing was elected a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, in 1935 for a dissertation On the Gaussian error function which proved fundamental results on probability theory, namely the central limit theorem. Although the central limit theorem had recently been discovered, Turing was not aware of this and discovered it independently. In 1936 Turing was a Smith's Prizeman.

Turing's achievements at Cambridge had been on account of his work in probability theory. However, he had been working on the decidability questions since attending Newman's course. In 1936 he published On Computable Numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. It is in this paper that Turing introduced an abstract machine, now called a "Turing machine", which moved from one state to another using a precise finite set of rules (given by a finite table) and depending on a single symbol it read from a tape.