Abstract What makes a good candidate for electoral office? There is surprisingly little consensus in answering this question. For parties, it may be subjective criteria such as eloquence, intelligence, charisma, or networks (Hazan and Rahat 2010; Murray 2010). It may also be more democratically dubious criteria such as party loyalty, independent financial resources, or family ties. Political theorists debate the relative merits of descriptive, substantive, symbolic, surrogate, gyroscopic, or promissory representatives (Dovi 2002; Mansbridge 2003; Pitkin 1967; Przeworski et al 1999; Rehfeld 2009), while for many empiricists, the measures of candidate strength are levels of education and/or income (Baltrunaite et al 2012; Besley et al 2012; Franceschet and Piscopo 2012; Galasso and Nannicini 2011; Júlio and Tavares 2010; Verge 2011). For the public, in contrast, many of these criteria are not important: they simply want someone who can recognise, understand and defend their views and interests. With so many different interpretations of candidate quality, and with very few codified criteria for candidate selection (Hazan and Rahat 2010), it is difficult to prove conclusively whether party candidate selection procedures discriminate against women, either negatively or positively (for example, through the use of quotas). There is evidence, however, that the criteria currently used by parties are based on male norms that may disadvantage women (Bacchi 1996; Norris and Lovenduski 1995). Attributes more commonly held by women may be overlooked or undervalued (Franceschet et al 2012). Party selectors may not be aware of these biases and believe they are selecting the best available candidates, even when the outcome is the over-recruitment of men. Given that current candidate selection criteria are ill-defined, poorly specified, difficult to measure and discriminatory, this paper considers how to identify new criteria that are more objective, measurable, unbiased, and better suited to the re
Paul Crotty is a federal judge on senior status for the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. He joined the court in 2005 after being nominated by President George W. Bush. Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015. Education Born in Buffalo, New York, Crotty graduated from the University of Notre Dame with his bachelor's degree in 1962 and graduated from Cornell Law School with his LL.B. in 1967. Military service Crotty served in the United States Navy Reserve from 1962 to 1968. Professional career 1997-2005: Group president, Verizon Communications, New York and Connecticut region 1994-1997: Corporation counsel, New York City, New York 1988-1993: Attorney in private practice, New York 1984-1988: Office of Financial Services, New York City 1986-1988: Commissioner of Housing Preservation and Development 1984-1986: Commissioner of Finance 1984: Commissioner 1969-1984: Attorney in private practice, New York 1967-1969: Law clerk, Honorable Lloyd MacMahon, Southern District of New York Judicial career Crotty was nominated to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George W. Bush on February 14, 2005, to a seat vacated by Harold Baer. Crotty was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on April 11, 2005, on a Senate vote and received commission on April 15, 2005. Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015.
Rep. Wasserman Schultz is a person respected by her colleagues for her tenacity and her hard work on many important issues. In March 2009, after announcing her own battle with breast cancer, she introduced the Education and Awareness Requires Learning Young Act, or EARLY Act (H.R. 1740), a piece of legislation that directs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop and implement a national education campaign about the threat breast cancer poses to all young women, and the particular heightened risks of certain ethnic, cultural and racial groups. This bill became law as part of the Affordable Health Care Act in March 2010. In 2014, she worked with Rep. Renee Ellmers (NC-2) to pass a bipartisan reauthorization of the EARLY Act (H.R. 5185) for five additional years. President Obama signed the reauthorization of the EARLY Act into law in December 2014. Image from http://cdn.redalertpolitics.com/
The world’s most powerful woman, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, has a lot on her mind these days: Mediterranean migrants, Russian sanctions, homegrown spying scandals, Eurozone stability and the Germanwings crash, to name a few pressing issues. One thing she surely isn’t thinking about — but we are — is that come next year’s U.S. elections, she could lose her title for the first time since 2010 to the one person with a credible and mathematical chance of “leading” the world.