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Funcionamiento del artículo 233 de la constitución venezolana.


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President of France

Who is François Hollande ?

 President of FranceSynopsis

François Hollande was born in Rouen, France in 1954. He attended a series of elite French schools and joined the Socialist Party in 1979. First elected to the Ussel town council, he went on to win a National Assembly seat in 1988. He was made chair of the Socialist Party and announced a bid for the presidency in 2011, and beat incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy to become France's 24th president in 2012.

Early Life

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande was born on August 12, 1954, in Rouen, France to a right-wing physician father and a progressive social worker mother. The family moved to Paris when Hollande was 13, and after graduating from the public school system, he attended the Institut de Sciences Politiques and then the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, France's top business school. He then entered the École Nationale d'Administration.

Early Career

Hollande demonstrated an early interest in politics and volunteered for François Mitterrand's second unsuccessful presidential campaign while he was still a student. Five years later, in 1979, he joined the Socialist Party. By then, Mitterrand had been elected on his third try and he appointed Hollande a junior economic advisor. Hollande held this post until he went to work for Max Gallo, the press secretary to former prime minister Pierre Mauroy.


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Melania Trump

Who is Melania Trump?

 Melania TrumpSynopsis

Born on April 26, 1970, Melania Trump is a former model and current third wife of real estate billionaire and 2016 Republican President-Elect Donald Trump.

Early Life

Melania Trump (born Melanija Knavs, germanized to Melania Knauss) was born on April 26, 1970 in Novo Mesto, Slovenia (then part of communist Yugoslavia). Her father was a car dealer and her mother was a designer for children's clothing. She grew up in a modest home with her younger sister and later discovered she had an older half brother, whom her father had from a previous relationship.

Modeling Career

At 16 Trump began modeling and two years later, signed on with an agency in Milan. Although she attended the University of Ljubljana, she dropped out after one year to pursue her modeling career. (Since 2006 she had previously claimed she had earned a degree in architecture and design from the university.)

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New plans for United States come with Steven Mnuchin. Source:@gop

 USAFEB-2017.- What wil new Treasury Secretary focus on?

As Treasury Secretary and Principal Economic Advisor Mr. Mnuchin will spearhead President-elect Trump’s plan to develop a dynamic, booming economy that will create millions of new jobs over the next decade. Top priorities will include:

Pushing a pro-growth tax plan where every income group will receive a tax cut and low-income Americans will pay no taxes at all.
Working with President-elect Trump to craft a modern regulatory framework that slashes the out-of-control bureaucracy that costs our economy trillions each year.
Working with President-elect Trump and economic leaders to implement an America First trade policy that ensures that every single one of our trade agreements increases our GDP growth rate, reduces our trade deficit, and strengthens our manufacturing base.
Enacting a common sense economic plan, we will unleash American energy, creating millions of new jobs and slashing costs for consumers.
Proposing the "Penny Plan," which will reduce spending by almost $1 trillion over ten years by simply reducing non-defense, non-safety net spending by one percent each year.


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Who is Ban Ki-moon

 UNThe Secretary-General was born in the Republic of Korea on 13 June 1944. He received a bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970. In 1985, he earned a master's degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

At the time of his election as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban was his country's Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. His 37 years of service with the Ministry included postings in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including Foreign Policy Adviser to the President, Chief National Security Adviser to the President, Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and Director-General of American Affairs.

Mr. Ban’s ties to the United Nations date back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry's United Nations Division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments that included service as Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization and Chef de Cabinet during the Republic of Korea's 2001-2002 presidency of the UN General Assembly. Mr. Ban has also been actively involved in issues relating to inter-Korean relations.

The Secretary-General speaks English, French and Korean. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have one son, two daughters and three grandchildren. Since 2007, Mrs. Ban has devoted her attention to women’s and children’s health, including autism, the elimination of violence against women, and the campaign to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. His priorities have been to mobilize world leaders around a set of new global challenges, from climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increasing pressures involving food, energy and water. He has sought to be a bridge-builder, to give voice to the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people, and to strengthen the Organization itself.

"I grew up in war", the Secretary-General has said, "and saw the United Nations help my country to recover and rebuild. That experience was a big part of what led me to pursue a career in public service. As Secretary-General, I am determined to see this Organization deliver tangible, meaningful results that advance peace, development and human rights."


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Powerful women

Most Powerful Women in 2015

 Powerful womenThe world’s most powerful woman, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, has a lot on her mind these days: Mediterranean migrants, Russian sanctions, homegrown spying scandals, Eurozone stability and the Germanwings crash, to name a few pressing issues. One thing she surely isn’t thinking about — but we are — is that come next year’s U.S. elections, she could lose her title for the first time since 2010 to the one person with a credible and mathematical chance of “leading” the world.


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Policy adviser

who is Stephen R. Miller?

 Policy adviser

Professor Stephen R. Miller

is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Idaho College of Law. He is an expert in land use; local government; local environmental law; sustainability and resilience planning, with an emphasis on wildfire; and local regulation of the sharing economy. His numerous books, chapters, law review articles and editorials have been published by Cambridge University Press, the Harvard Environmental Law Review and the Harvard Journal on Legislation, among others.

He has served as a consultant on United States’ land use governance for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and as an adviser to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on the creation of a National Risk Index. He has served as a commissioner on the Boise Planning & Zoning Commission, and presently serves on the boards of the Montana & Idaho Community Development Corporation, the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute, and the Land Use Law Center at Pace Law School.


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Artículo 333 constitucional.


Título VIII
De la Protección de esta Constitución
Capítulo I
De la Garantía de esta Constitución

Artículo 333. °
Esta Constitución no perderá su vigencia si dejare de observarse por acto de
fuerza o porque fuere derogada por cualquier otro medio distinto al previsto en
En tal eventualidad, todo ciudadano investido o ciudadana investida o no de
autoridad, tendrá el deber de colaborar en el restablecimiento de su efectiva


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Successful woman

Who is Najat Vallaud-Belkacem?

 Successful womanOnce A Shepherd Girl In Morocco, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem Is Now France's Education Minister!

Everybody dreams of making it big in life but very few determined souls really act upon it. The story of Najat Vallaud-Belkacem is a testament to this, who overcame all the obstacles life laid at her feet and carved her own destiny.
Once a shepherd girl of four - who tended goats and fetched water from the well - Najat moved to France with her family and faced the real world full of opportunities as well as struggles. The Moroccan girl who had no proficiency in French learnt the language by the end of her first year in college.
Najat inherited hard work and resourcefulness from her father who laid strict rules for his daughters - no boys and no nightclubs till the age of 18. As a result, the girls completely surrendered themselves to studies.


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Derecho a huelga

Capítulo V De los derechos sociales y de las familias

 Derecho a huelgaEn el campo laboral se reconocen los derechos individuales al trabajo, a la estabilidad y a las vacaciones, así como los derechos colectivos de sindicalización, contratación colectiva y derecho a la huelga por parte de los trabajadores y de las trabajadoras.

Artículo 97. Todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras del sector público y del sector privado tienen derecho a la huelga, dentro de las condiciones que establezca la ley.


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Wladimir Putin

Russian President Putin: Bloomberg Interview

 Wladimir PutinOEF Rapid Review Articles
Russian President Vladimir Putin was interviewed by Bloomberg News Editor-in-Chief John Micklethwait in Vladivostok on the eve of the second Eastern Economic Forum. The interview covered whether he would run in the next 2018 elections, his opinions on the US General Election, Syria, OPEC, the Rosneft sale, and Japan. With regard to the subject of oil – which occurs around half way through the full Bloomberg transcript of the interview – Putin said that Russian oil and gas companies, but mainly the oil companies, have invested 1.5 trillion rubles, and with the state’s investment in the pipeline network and electricity sector included the overall investment in energy added up to 3.5 trillion rubles in the past year. A quite significant figure considered Putin. He noted that Russia is the world’s leader in terms of natural gas exports with a global share of about 20 percent. Micklethwait asked him if Russia would be happy in a world where the Russian state had less than 50 percent ownership of certain big companies. Putin answered that Russia did not see anything horrible in this saying that when foreign shareholders – investors – took 50 percent of a certain company the contributions to the federal budget, tax payments, increased several times immediately and the company’s efficiency didn’t deteriorate at all. So from the viewpoint of the state’s interests, Putin considered that Russia had had a more positive than negative experience with regard to this. Putin added that the year before last oil and gas revenue accounted for 53 percent of budget revenue but this year it will be about 36 percent. Structural changes are also taking place, he said, not only in terms of price, but also about distribution, economic growth, and about the expansion of certain industries. He gave the example that whereas industrial production growth across the country is at 0.3 percent, in the Far East where the Economic Forum is being held, industrial production growth is 5.4 percent.

SRC: Bloomberg


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What Makes a Good Politician?

What makes a good candidate for electoral office? There is surprisingly little consensus in
answering this question. For parties, it may be subjective criteria such as eloquence,
intelligence, charisma, or networks (Hazan and Rahat 2010; Murray 2010). It may also be
more democratically dubious criteria such as party loyalty, independent financial resources,
or family ties. Political theorists debate the relative merits of descriptive, substantive,
symbolic, surrogate, gyroscopic, or promissory representatives (Dovi 2002; Mansbridge
2003; Pitkin 1967; Przeworski et al 1999; Rehfeld 2009), while for many empiricists, the
measures of candidate strength are levels of education and/or income (Baltrunaite et al 2012;
Besley et al 2012; Franceschet and Piscopo 2012; Galasso and Nannicini 2011; Júlio and
Tavares 2010; Verge 2011). For the public, in contrast, many of these criteria are not
important: they simply want someone who can recognise, understand and defend their views
and interests.
With so many different interpretations of candidate quality, and with very few codified
criteria for candidate selection (Hazan and Rahat 2010), it is difficult to prove conclusively
whether party candidate selection procedures discriminate against women, either negatively
or positively (for example, through the use of quotas). There is evidence, however, that the
criteria currently used by parties are based on male norms that may disadvantage women
(Bacchi 1996; Norris and Lovenduski 1995). Attributes more commonly held by women may
be overlooked or undervalued (Franceschet et al 2012). Party selectors may not be aware of
these biases and believe they are selecting the best available candidates, even when the
outcome is the over-recruitment of men.
Given that current candidate selection criteria are ill-defined, poorly specified, difficult to
measure and discriminatory, this paper considers how to identify new criteria that are more
objective, measurable, unbiased, and better suited to the re



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