T: Politics ID: 130 I: 1396 P: 8.07 C: 0.0014

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 IZQUIERDALa división izquierda-derecha tiene una fecha de nacimiento dudosa. Todos la sitúan en las primeras semanas de la Revolución Francesa, pero no todos coinciden en cuanto al día.


T: Politics ID: 198 I: 1474 P: 8.52 C: 0.0014

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Debbie Wasserman bio

Who is Debbie Wasserman Schultz?

 Debbie Wasserman bioRep. Wasserman Schultz is a person respected by her colleagues for her tenacity and her hard work on many important issues. In March 2009, after announcing her own battle with breast cancer, she introduced the Education and Awareness Requires Learning Young Act, or EARLY Act (H.R. 1740), a piece of legislation that directs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop and implement a national education campaign about the threat breast cancer poses to all young women, and the particular heightened risks of certain ethnic, cultural and racial groups. This bill became law as part of the Affordable Health Care Act in March 2010. In 2014, she worked with Rep. Renee Ellmers (NC-2) to pass a bipartisan reauthorization of the EARLY Act (H.R. 5185) for five additional years. President Obama signed the reauthorization of the EARLY Act into law in December 2014.
Image from http://cdn.redalertpolitics.com/


T: Politics ID: 366 I: 1015 P: 10.36 C: 0.0020

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Powerful women

Most Powerful Women in 2015

 Powerful womenThe world’s most powerful woman, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, has a lot on her mind these days: Mediterranean migrants, Russian sanctions, homegrown spying scandals, Eurozone stability and the Germanwings crash, to name a few pressing issues. One thing she surely isn’t thinking about — but we are — is that come next year’s U.S. elections, she could lose her title for the first time since 2010 to the one person with a credible and mathematical chance of “leading” the world.


T: Politics ID: 390 I: 989 P: 11.50 C: 0.0020

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Derecho a huelga

Capítulo V De los derechos sociales y de las familias

 Derecho a huelgaEn el campo laboral se reconocen los derechos individuales al trabajo, a la estabilidad y a las vacaciones, así como los derechos colectivos de sindicalización, contratación colectiva y derecho a la huelga por parte de los trabajadores y de las trabajadoras.

Artículo 97. Todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras del sector público y del sector privado tienen derecho a la huelga, dentro de las condiciones que establezca la ley.


T: Politics ID: 387 I: 1013 P: 11.51 C: 0.0020

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Artículo 233 constitucional.

 ConstituciónCapítulo II
Del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional

Sección primera: del Presidente o Presidenta de la República

Artículo 233. Serán faltas absolutas del Presidente o Presidenta de la República: su muerte, su renuncia, o su destitución decretada por sentencia del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia; su incapacidad física o mental permanente certificada por una junta médica designada por el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia y con aprobación de la Asamblea Nacional; el abandono del cargo, declarado como tal por la Asamblea Nacional, así como la revocación popular de su mandato.

Cuando se produzca la falta absoluta del Presidente electo o Presidenta electa antes de tomar posesión, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Presidente o Presidenta de la Asamblea Nacional.

Si la falta absoluta del Presidente o la Presidenta de la República se produce durante los primeros cuatro años del período constitucional, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva.

En los casos anteriores, el nuevo Presidente o Presidenta completará el período constitucional correspondiente.

Si la falta absoluta se produce durante los últimos dos años del período constitucional, el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva asumirá la Presidencia de la República hasta completar dicho período.


T: Politics ID: 392 I: 996 P: 11.58 C: 0.0020

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Wladimir Putin

Russian President Putin: Bloomberg Interview

 Wladimir PutinOEF Rapid Review Articles
Russian President Vladimir Putin was interviewed by Bloomberg News Editor-in-Chief John Micklethwait in Vladivostok on the eve of the second Eastern Economic Forum. The interview covered whether he would run in the next 2018 elections, his opinions on the US General Election, Syria, OPEC, the Rosneft sale, and Japan. With regard to the subject of oil – which occurs around half way through the full Bloomberg transcript of the interview – Putin said that Russian oil and gas companies, but mainly the oil companies, have invested 1.5 trillion rubles, and with the state’s investment in the pipeline network and electricity sector included the overall investment in energy added up to 3.5 trillion rubles in the past year. A quite significant figure considered Putin. He noted that Russia is the world’s leader in terms of natural gas exports with a global share of about 20 percent. Micklethwait asked him if Russia would be happy in a world where the Russian state had less than 50 percent ownership of certain big companies. Putin answered that Russia did not see anything horrible in this saying that when foreign shareholders – investors – took 50 percent of a certain company the contributions to the federal budget, tax payments, increased several times immediately and the company’s efficiency didn’t deteriorate at all. So from the viewpoint of the state’s interests, Putin considered that Russia had had a more positive than negative experience with regard to this. Putin added that the year before last oil and gas revenue accounted for 53 percent of budget revenue but this year it will be about 36 percent. Structural changes are also taking place, he said, not only in terms of price, but also about distribution, economic growth, and about the expansion of certain industries. He gave the example that whereas industrial production growth across the country is at 0.3 percent, in the Far East where the Economic Forum is being held, industrial production growth is 5.4 percent.

SRC: Bloomberg


T: Politics ID: 406 I: 1013 P: 11.92 C: 0.0020

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Leader Attributes

Qualities of a good political leader

 Leader AttributesCEBU, Philippines – As the filing of certificates of candidacy for next year's national and local elections nears, the question of which candidates best fit public office is at the forefront of the public mind. Voters need to go beyond surface popularity and dig deeper to know if the individual candidates really have what it takes to render good public service. It's important to get to the truth behind the campaign hype.

The website www.beliefnet.com acknowledges that, for many people, deciding which candidate to vote into office is simply a matter of party affiliation. In the Philippine experience, however, this is no longer totally true. The past several elections have resulted in quite a mixed victory from among the country's multi-party electoral system.

It may be construed, therefore, that the main Filipino electorate cast their votes based on specific characteristics they look for in the candidates they choose. But what are these desirable characteristics? What are the qualities or characteristics that good political leaders should possess?

The www.beliefnet.com website lists the top five characteristics of some of the world's most successful political leaders. These, for sure, can help voters in determining which candidates to vote into office.

Good political attributes>

  • Honesty

  • Compassion

  • Integrity

  • Confidence

  • Flexibility


T: Politics ID: 407 I: 1033 P: 12.15 C: 0.0019

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What Makes a Good Politician?

What makes a good candidate for electoral office? There is surprisingly little consensus in
answering this question. For parties, it may be subjective criteria such as eloquence,
intelligence, charisma, or networks (Hazan and Rahat 2010; Murray 2010). It may also be
more democratically dubious criteria such as party loyalty, independent financial resources,
or family ties. Political theorists debate the relative merits of descriptive, substantive,
symbolic, surrogate, gyroscopic, or promissory representatives (Dovi 2002; Mansbridge
2003; Pitkin 1967; Przeworski et al 1999; Rehfeld 2009), while for many empiricists, the
measures of candidate strength are levels of education and/or income (Baltrunaite et al 2012;
Besley et al 2012; Franceschet and Piscopo 2012; Galasso and Nannicini 2011; Júlio and
Tavares 2010; Verge 2011). For the public, in contrast, many of these criteria are not
important: they simply want someone who can recognise, understand and defend their views
and interests.
With so many different interpretations of candidate quality, and with very few codified
criteria for candidate selection (Hazan and Rahat 2010), it is difficult to prove conclusively
whether party candidate selection procedures discriminate against women, either negatively
or positively (for example, through the use of quotas). There is evidence, however, that the
criteria currently used by parties are based on male norms that may disadvantage women
(Bacchi 1996; Norris and Lovenduski 1995). Attributes more commonly held by women may
be overlooked or undervalued (Franceschet et al 2012). Party selectors may not be aware of
these biases and believe they are selecting the best available candidates, even when the
outcome is the over-recruitment of men.
Given that current candidate selection criteria are ill-defined, poorly specified, difficult to
measure and discriminatory, this paper considers how to identify new criteria that are more
objective, measurable, unbiased, and better suited to the re


T: Politics ID: 650 I: 508 P: 12.70 C: 0.0039

Who is Ban Ki-moon

 UNThe Secretary-General was born in the Republic of Korea on 13 June 1944. He received a bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970. In 1985, he earned a master's degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

At the time of his election as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban was his country's Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. His 37 years of service with the Ministry included postings in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including Foreign Policy Adviser to the President, Chief National Security Adviser to the President, Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and Director-General of American Affairs.

Mr. Ban’s ties to the United Nations date back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry's United Nations Division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments that included service as Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization and Chef de Cabinet during the Republic of Korea's 2001-2002 presidency of the UN General Assembly. Mr. Ban has also been actively involved in issues relating to inter-Korean relations.

The Secretary-General speaks English, French and Korean. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have one son, two daughters and three grandchildren. Since 2007, Mrs. Ban has devoted her attention to women’s and children’s health, including autism, the elimination of violence against women, and the campaign to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. His priorities have been to mobilize world leaders around a set of new global challenges, from climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increasing pressures involving food, energy and water. He has sought to be a bridge-builder, to give voice to the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people, and to strengthen the Organization itself.

"I grew up in war", the Secretary-General has said, "and saw the United Nations help my country to recover and rebuild. That experience was a big part of what led me to pursue a career in public service. As Secretary-General, I am determined to see this Organization deliver tangible, meaningful results that advance peace, development and human rights."


T: Politics ID: 653 I: 520 P: 13.00 C: 0.0038

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Policy adviser

who is Stephen R. Miller?

 Policy adviser

Professor Stephen R. Miller

is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Idaho College of Law. He is an expert in land use; local government; local environmental law; sustainability and resilience planning, with an emphasis on wildfire; and local regulation of the sharing economy. His numerous books, chapters, law review articles and editorials have been published by Cambridge University Press, the Harvard Environmental Law Review and the Harvard Journal on Legislation, among others.

He has served as a consultant on United States’ land use governance for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and as an adviser to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on the creation of a National Risk Index. He has served as a commissioner on the Boise Planning & Zoning Commission, and presently serves on the boards of the Montana & Idaho Community Development Corporation, the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute, and the Land Use Law Center at Pace Law School.


T: Politics ID: 400 I: 1186 P: 13.95 C: 0.0017

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President of France

Who is François Hollande ?

 President of FranceSynopsis

François Hollande was born in Rouen, France in 1954. He attended a series of elite French schools and joined the Socialist Party in 1979. First elected to the Ussel town council, he went on to win a National Assembly seat in 1988. He was made chair of the Socialist Party and announced a bid for the presidency in 2011, and beat incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy to become France's 24th president in 2012.

Early Life

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande was born on August 12, 1954, in Rouen, France to a right-wing physician father and a progressive social worker mother. The family moved to Paris when Hollande was 13, and after graduating from the public school system, he attended the Institut de Sciences Politiques and then the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, France's top business school. He then entered the École Nationale d'Administration.

Early Career

Hollande demonstrated an early interest in politics and volunteered for François Mitterrand's second unsuccessful presidential campaign while he was still a student. Five years later, in 1979, he joined the Socialist Party. By then, Mitterrand had been elected on his third try and he appointed Hollande a junior economic advisor. Hollande held this post until he went to work for Max Gallo, the press secretary to former prime minister Pierre Mauroy.


T: Politics ID: 469 I: 927 P: 14.26 C: 0.0022

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U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara

Who is Preet Bharara?

  U.S. Attorney Preet BhararaBharara was born in Ferozepur, India, and immigrated to the United States with his family when he was a young child. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College in 1990 and his J.D. from Columbia Law School three years later. While attending the Law School, Bharara served as a member of the Columbia Law Review.

Bharara worked as a litigation associate in New York City until 2000, when he was chosen by then U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Mary Jo White ’74 to serve as an assistant U.S. Attorney in her office. For the next five years, he focused mainly on the prosecution of organized crime and narcotics cases.

In 2005, Bharara moved to Washington, D.C., to serve as Senator Charles E. Schumer’s chief counsel on the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee. He also worked as staff director for the Senate Subcommittee on Administrative Oversight and the Courts, and helped lead the Senate’s investigation into the firing of several U.S. Attorneys during President George W. Bush’s second term. President Barack Obama nominated Bharara to the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York post in May 2009. The Senate unanimously confirmed his nomination, and he was sworn into office that August.

As the Southern District’s chief prosecutor, Bharara oversees more than 220 assistant U.S. Attorneys dealing with a wide range of cases, including those involving terrorism, narcotics, public corruption, organized crime, and white-collar crime. During the past four years, he has received praise for his handling of some of the most high-profile cases in U.S. history, such as the successful prosecutions of arms trafficker Viktor Bout, terrorist Faisal Shahzad, and hedge-fund manager Raj Rajaratnam. In February 2012, Time magazine featured Bharara on its cover, referring to him as the man who is “busting Wall St.” In 2011, he was awarded Columbia Law School’s Lawrence A. Wien Prize for Social Responsibility.



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